In a scientific research the thesis may be the heart but, references are the neural system. References cannot be evitable in order to have a strong and valuable research. References are important in a scientific research because they are the proof that the research is trustable, and the research has a goal to proof it’s ideas.

The first reason why references has a huge impact on a scientific research is that they make the research paper trustworthy. As we all read a research, to believe in it’s ideas and to appreciate it’s value, we need references. References show that the author can use other’s ideas in order to support his or her own. This is an important process which should be included to a scientific research. Also, references show how deeply the arguments were supported. As the arguments are supported with given examples, readers tend to visualize and make connections out of them so that they believe the reseach is trustable.

Another reason why references are important for a scientific research is that they prove the research’s ideas. References are a great symbol of showing variety which is important to prove that the given information is reliable. Variety is a must in every scientific reseach in order to be sure that the conclusion or the idea is correct. As making references in a scientific research author proves that the ideas and the inferences of the research is seen in many times and in many different ways. In this stream, reader gains the ideas more powerfully.

In conclusion, references are indispensable to a scientific research in order to prove that the research has a variety that can be trustable, and that the reseach tends to prove it’s ideas. We should point out that references aren’t only indispensable but also a must for a scientific research to avoide plagiarism. Plagiarism is to use someone else’s ideas or to make quotations without giving references. It’s a serious crime which is basically equal to robbery; you steal ideas, opinions.

Indiana University Confirmation



                                             CMN THIRD ASSIGNMENT

   According to my experiences from last week’s assignment, I started with reading the articles with a normal regard so that the articles seemed written with a serious language supported by many numerical evidences. Afterwards as I read them carefully, I figured out many unclear statements and contradictory numerical values.

I would like to start with the article titled “The two-baby family makes a comeback” which is published on 14 July 2011, in the newspaper called Daily Mail. It is obvious that this article contains a lot of various numerical values in order to support their ideas but it also has many inconsistencies. I will talk about these by categorizing them in two groups.

A) Mothers

To begin with, the article says that “mothers now have an average of precisely 2.0 children”. It means that the number of mothers is double of the children. As the article continues, it isn’t mentioned in some parts of the England, a mother may choose to have more children than a woman in the city (high educated, working etc.), so that this average isn’t always true for everyone. The socio-economic status of the parents has a huge impact on deciding how many children they want to have.

Also, the article claims in the title ‘’two-baby family makes a comeback’’. It also contains the numerical values of unmarried woman’s children which is half of the born rates. It seems that the article ignores the fact of children who were born outside marriage build the half of the total born-rate as it announces ‘’nuclear family is still to make a comeback’’. In contrast, this means that half of the mothers prefer not to be married and not to form a ‘’two-baby family’’, neither a ‘’nuclear family’’. It’s an amount which cannot be passed over and be generalized to support their argument.

B) Immigration
Another inconsistency that we can see in the article is in manner of the immigration. It is said in the article that (%25) “a quarter of the births in England and Wales last year (2010) were to mothers who were themselves born abroad” and it is to support their claim which is “birthrates have been driven up by increase in the numbers of foreign-born women with above average fertility”. As it continues, the article says that immigrant women are “more likely to be of childbearing age than the population as a whole”. It doesn’t seem to be right since only 1 in 4 woman of the ‘whole population’ is immigrants and it isn’t reliable since not every woman with a suitable age for childbearing is immigrating to have children. Therefore, contrary as the article states, one of the main reasons for birth rate augmentation cannot be the effect of only immigrants.

In conclusion, this article is obviously written by an exact point of view which is clearly against childbearing out of marriage and immigration. Numerical values were used to somehow support these ideas, but with an attentive reading it is easy to see the numbers weren’t used correctly or compatibly.

Secondly, I will talk about the article titled ‘’How family meals can stop eating disorders’’, published in 14 July 2011, in the newspaper called Daily Mail. The first thing about the article is surely it seems to be short and to the point. However, it contains several numerical values and percentages which were used incompatibly.

First of all, the article declares two percentages; ‘’They were also 24 per cent more likely to… have healthy eating habits than those who didn’t share three meals with their families’’ and ‘’teens who eat at least five meals a week with their families are 35 per cent less likely to be ‘disordered eaters’’. These numerical statements don’t show the same percentage of how effective is eating one meal with family per week. First one declares it as %8 while the second one declares it as %7.
Another untrue statement is that the article talks about 17 studies on eating patterns and nutrition involving ‘almost’ 200.000 children and teenagers. It doesn’t clarify which age group (which is actually 2-17) was involved in the study and what did this study really pertained. The exact amount of children and teenager who were in the study was actually 182.000. The article ignores about 18.000 subjects which is a high number that couldn’t be unmentioned in order to reflect the true numerical value.

The last thing I would like to point out is how the article defines disordered eating. It is said in the article that ‘’smoking to keep a lid on weight’’ is also a sign of eating disorders. Actually, this action doesn’t define an eating disorder at all. The article is far from reflecting the real definition and causes of disordered eating. In addition, it isn’t even mentioned once eating excessive amounts of food, psychological effects of eating disorders, and unhealthy nutrition habits in schools or even in families.

To conclude, the article tries to fix the idea of eating with family is a great way to control children and teenagers. It tries to use the numerical facts and percentages as they are proof of this idea by reconstituting the data.

I really enjoyed reading the articles and doing the research on these topics. Since I really understood the methodology of how to detect false usage of numbers and how they were used to manipulate the reader’s ideas. I look forward to write more reports and get better at criticizing what I read in my personal life.

Sources for the first article:

Sources for the second article:

CMN Second Project


As a group, we were already aware of the spreading and increasing disease cancer. As we started to do research about the topic of this assignment, we had a better chance to get a closer look to the causes and effects of cancer. We realized how quickly it spreads and how common it is.

When we read the article called “One in four Britons will get cancer” that was on Daily Mail, July 14, 2011, we caught many incomplete and missing informations. These mistakes are such as;

-Untrue assumptions

-Contradictory expressions

-Numerical errors

-Unmentioned sources

-Undetermined research methods

-Too many exaggerations and generalizations

-Unclear statements

First of all, we started with the statement mentioned in the title “One in four Britons will get cancer”. 62.649.014 is the population of England in 2011. According to title 15.662.253 people will get cancer. As the article declares afterwards “ There are currently two million people in Britain with the ilness and this is expected to double within the next 20 years”. According to this statement if it continues to double every 20 years, it will reach appromixely to 15.662.253 after 60 years.

Secondly, in the article it is given that “some” %64 eventually die from the cancer but as we made a research about cancer survivors we found out that there are %50 survivors and this is still increasing. Also the word “some” is an unclear statement and cannot be used when giving a specific percentage.

Furthermore, the article announces that the reason of the cancer is “lifestyle factors such as obesity, excessive drinking and smoking”. However, according to our researches genetic tendency for the cancer has the main role in getting this disease. This article doesn’t even mention this reason once. If the genetic code has a tendency for cancer, outer factors trigger the risk of this disease.

Another unclear statement is that “ it (cancer) is also partly a result of people living longer”. It’s a fact that with getting older, every disease has more risk to be developed. This cannot support the article’s thesis. It’s an unnecessary information, exaggeration and generalization.

The other reason why we can’t rely on the article’s arguments is that it doesn’t name the research’s method. For example, the AMP method calculates the percentage of the cancer with counting all the diagnoses but it also contains the same person’s diognoses which may also be more than once. As a result, this method does not give us the number of people who suffer from cancer, it gives us the percentage of diognoses compared to population. So, since it isn’t given the research method we can’t accept it as a clear support.

In conclusion, we think that an article about something serious should have been more accurate and clear. It strains the truths about the sickness, its causes and the percentages.

As a group, we chose to communicate from Whatsapp and formed a gruop called “Project CMN”. We scheculed appointment in ÇSM three times. First, we read and discussed about the article. Then, we did a research from Internet about the population, percentages and causes of cancer. Finally, we wrote our report by gathering the information that we found. The avantages of working face to face are:

-Better communication

-Time saving

-Better discussion environment

-Better information sharing

For me, this assigment pointed out a very important subject; misinformation published in newspapers. It is a common problem that we all suffer from it. In every country, media anounces their articles with exagerations to control and to manipulate the people. As concious individuals, we all must be aware of what we read cannot be true. We should think before we believe everything we read. I had a great time with my group members as we studied together.

– Selen Demircioğlu

Qualified information is a really important issue that everyone should be aware. As we read the article, we found so much mistakes, uncompleted, untrue or unclear statements. We realized that we shouldn’t trust everything we read. We researched about the informations that the article gave; it was clear that the informations were distorted to attract more attention. Doing this research with a group helped us find the mistakes easily by doing brainstorming. Also, we really enjoyed this work.

-Deniz Ersoy

This assignment was really hard to deal with because it was very complicated and so many mistakes were made in the article. It took long time to point out them and research and find the proves. I realised one more that we should not trust everything we read or hear. Plus we shouldn’t believe an article just because it’s on a popular news or websites. An article should have prove so that people can trust and believe in the information that is given. Above all, I really enjoyed doing this assignment with my group members.
-Bilge Tuzen